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dan

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Monday, April 25th 2011, 12:01pm

1857: Proposed Railway, Kustendjie, Cernavoda, Liddell, Gordon, Constanta, DBSR


1857: Report on the proposed railway
between the Danube and the Black Sea, (from Tchernavoda to Kustendjie) and the free port at Kustendjie

Verfasser: Liddel and Gordon
Impressum: Foreign and Commonwealth Office Collection, 1857
Ort / Jahr: The University of Manchester, The John Rylands University Library, 1857





Quoted from "Report..."

... in spite of the impediments which the passage into and up through the delta of the Danube presents to navigation, the trade of the ports of Galatz and Ibraila, situated at its head, has gradually increased, so that in 1852 it was fifteen/old of what it was in 1838, and twenty fold of what it was in 1837. Before 1828 there was no general trade. Export of grain, excepting to Constantinople, was prohibited. In 1852, two years before the commencement of last war, the export of grain was 1,769,799 quarters. From the small and uncertain depth of water on the bar, the exposure of the entrance, and the difficulties of the navigation through the channels of the delta, the trade has been confined to vessels of light draught; to Turkish, Greek, and Ionian coasting vessels of small tonnage, and to comparatively few French, English, and Austrian vessels, and those seldom exceeding 200 tons register.

Now this state of the navigation is almost prohibitory to direct trade with the west of Europe, in which large vessels only can be profitably employed, and for which the vessels to all countries are steadily increasing in size year by year; and thus, for example, while 725,000 quarters of grain of the computed value of 1,510,000/., came to England from the Danubian provinces in 1852, the value of English manufactures which went direct to the provinces in return was only 269,533/, of which 227,000/. was for cottons and cotton yarn, so that the general trade was insignificant.
....
The grain trade in the Danube has increased so rapidly since it became untrammelled, by the treaty of Adrianople in 1830, that the arrangements under which it is conducted are still of a very rude character. From the western districts of Wallachia, of which Crajova and Slatina are the foci, it is sent by land to Kalafat, and down the rivers Schyl and Aluta, in country boats, and also largely in carts to the Danube, where it is again transferred to country lighters (kirlaches), or to the barges of the Danube Steam Navigation Company, to be carried to Ibraila for shipment in sea-going vessels. The grain is either warehoused, or shipped direct from the barges and kirlaches into the sea-going vessels.

From the middle district, of which Bucharest is the centre, the grain passes down the Argish and the Jalonmitza rivers, and also largely by carts to the Danube, at Islas, Giurgevo, Kalarasch, Oltenitza,Jalomnitza, &c, a large proportion going westward towards Kalarasch and Jalomnitza, and thence on to Ibraila, and the grain is there warehoused or transhipped directly into sea-going vessels.

From Bulgaria the grain is shipped even at Rustschuk and Silistria into small coasting vessels, having been brought to the Danube by carts. The bulk of the grain, however, is carried from the interior to the river in bullock-carts, and is there shipped in small Turkish kirlaches, which take it to Matschin for transfer into sea-going vessels.

From Moldavia the grain is brought down the Sereth and its tributaries, but the great bulk is brought by carts to Galatz, where it is warehoused, and then transferred to sea-going vessels. Galatz and Ibraila are called free ports by their respective governments, but most improperly so; for grain and tallow cannot be imported from Wallachia into Galatz, nor from Moldavia into Ibraila, and the importation of these two articles from any quarter whatever, even for exportation, is prohibited. As grain and tallow form nine-tenths of the export trade of the Danube, it seems somewhat illusory to give the name of free ports to these places.
....
These few remarks are sufficient to prove the immense advantage that will accrue to trade by the establishment of a well-regulated, commodious free port at Kustendjie, where the grain of all the provinces may be concentrated by easy arrangements, much cheaper in the end than those of the rude system at present in use. The whole grain of Wallachia passes Tchernavoda, save that going out by the Jalomnitza. But this is only thirty miles lower down the Danube, and there the current of the Danube is not more than three miles per hour, so that a small tug-steamer would suffice to bring the grain from the Jalomnitza to Tchernavoda, at a less expense than if the craft were to go down to Ibraila for transfer of their cargo there, and then had to work up against nearly sixty miles of the stream.
....
The railway is proposed to be carried along the line of the Karasu lakes, nearly as far as Allikapu. These lakes depend almost entirely on the Danube for their supply of water; they are, in fact, backwaters of the Danube. No stream, not the smallest, discharges into them; and it is certain that no springs of any magnitude rise in any of them, save that immediately east of Karasu, and from that there is no discharge in the autumnal months, at which time the supply from the springs is not equal to the evaporation. When the Messrs. Barkley's survey was made, and at the time Mr. Gordon joined those gentlemen at Tchernavoda, the Danube was at an unusually low level, as it has been throughout the year 1856. It will be observed on the section that the water in the lower lakes was almost 2 feet above the level of the Danube, but it was rapidly falling by evaporation.

The channel which communicates between them and the Danube is practically level, and affords alternately ingress to the waters of the Danube and discharge for the waters from the lakes, according to the rise or fall of the Danube. When the Danube is at its lowest level, as shown in the accompanying diagram, the lakes are nearly dry, as shown on the plans, excepting that beyond Mejidia or Karasu town, which, as above mentioned, is probably partially supplied by springs.

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dan

Dan Sambra / Administrator

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Sunday, November 18th 2012, 3:40pm

1857: The Danube and the Black Sea: Memoir ... Thomas Forester, DBSR


1857: Memoir .... Thomas Forester

Title: The Danube and the Black Sea: memoir on their junction by a railway between Tchernavoda and a free port at Kustendjie: with remarks on the navigation of the Danube, the Danubian provinces, the corn trade, the ancient and present commerce of the Euxine ...

Author(s): Thomas Forester
Publisher: Edward Stanford, London, 1857




Title: Sketch of Kustendjie - Part of the proposed Harbour
Reduced from a sketch by Lt. Col. Biddulph, R.A.


]

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